Physiology & Medicine

 

- Cancer -

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Using NMT to detect the microenvironment in tumor cells
  • Research on drug resistance in tumor cells
  • Directly detect O2 consumption and H+ fluxes in the conditions of low oxygen and pH

 

Example:

Paclitaxel-induced H+ influx in human breast tumor tissue

Song J, et al. Acta Biophysica Sinica, 2008, 24: 191-197

(Use with permission)

 

Explore Products: Tumor Research Platform

 


 

- Neuroscience -

 

Neurons are electrically excitable cells which produce relatively large amounts of ATP and consume correspondingly large amounts of O2 to drive the ion pumps that restore intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ levels after synaptic activity and action potentials.

 

NMT is able to record the O2 consumption and Ca2+ flux in single neurons.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Signaling in neurons
  • Glutamate toxicity
  • Polarity growth of neuron synapse

 

Example:

NMT recording of O2 consumption in single neurons.

Neuroscience

Gleichmann M, et al. J Neurochem, 2009,109: 644-655

(Use with permission)

 


- Diabetes -

 

Diabetes is a serious threat to human health. Pathogenesis of diabetes is a very complex physiological regulation process, which involves Ca2+, H+, K+, Na+, O2 and many other ions/molecules. With Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) scientists are able to study these ions/molecules to reveal the physiological regulation of cells, tissues, organs, and other samples.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Regulation mechanisms of endocrine processes
  • Induced diabetes and its complications
  • Evaluation of treatments of diabetes drugs

 

Example:

Maternal diabetes resulting in low oxygen metabolism of the embryo can induce embryonic neural tube defects

Li R,et al.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2005, 289: E591–E599.

(Use with permission)

 


- Cell Viabilities -

 

All cells need to maintain a normal physiological state by means of material exchange with their environments, including ionic/molecular exchanges, such as Ca2+, K+ and Cl-, H+ for example. NMT can detect these exchanges in living samples which makes it a straight forward tool to evaluate cell viabilities.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • in vivo detection of the activity of the egg
  • in vivo detection of activity of the embryo
  • in vivo detection of cell fusion signal

 

Example:

Detection of egg viability via Ca2+ fluxes

Trimarchi JR, et al. Zygote, 2000:15-24

(Use with permission)

 


- Pharmacological research and efficacy evaluation -

 

Ionic/molecular fluxes are real time and quantitative indicators of physiological activities, and thus also become good quantitative indicators for pharmacological effects of drugs. The intuitive data provided by NMT is an easy way to understand these pharmacological effects in a more dynamic pattern.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Pharmacological mechanisms of specific drugs
  • Mechanisms of drug resistance
  • Evaluation of drugs for personalized treatments
  • Screening drugs

 

Example:

Doxorubicin induced differences of H+ fluxes between drug-resistant tumor cells and normal cells

Song J, et al. Acta Biophysica Sinica, 2008, 24: 191-197

(Use with permission)

 


- Apoptosis and Cell Death -

 

Ionic/molecular fluxes are one of the fundamental characteristics of life. When cells undergo apoptosis, K+, H+, and other ions/molecules change accordingly. NMT is a perfect tool to study the apoptotic process through the direct measurements of ionic/molecular activities.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Apoptosis mechanisms
  • Prediction of Cell Death
  • Study the toxicological mechanism of toxicity of the cell

 

Examples:

(1) K+ effluxes as early indicators of apoptosis in mouse embryonic cells 

Trimarchi JR, et al. Biology of Reproduction,2000, 63: 851-857.

(Use with permission)

 

(2) K+ Effluxes with STS treatments in the process of cell senescence

Valencia-Cruz G, et al.Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 2009, 297: C1544-C1553.

(Use with permission)

 


- Other Diseases -

 

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia within the aging population. A major pathological hallmark of AD is the deposition of insoluble extracellular b-amyloid (Ab) plaques. Zn7MT-2A is a new drug which blocks Cu(II)-Ab induced changes in ionic homeostasis and subsequent neurotoxicity of cultured cortical neurons. MT-2A might represent a different therapeutic approach as the metal exchange between MT and Ab leaves the Ab in a Zn-bound, relatively inert form.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Research on the roles of drugs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
  • Find a new mechanism in disease
  • Evaluate new drug efficacy for disease therapies

 

Example:

Detection of Ca2+ and K+ fluxes of neurons after drug treatment

Other Diseases

Chung RS et al. (2010). PLoS ONE 5(8): e12030. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012030

(Use with permission)